~art theory 101~ The Conservation of SpaceTime: The role of the Higgs, graviton and photon bosons in defining Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of) in the fractal Universe
The Conservation of SpaceTime
~ The role of the Higgs, graviton and photon bosons in defining Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of) in the fractal Universe ~
Copyright© 2008, Reginald Brooks. All rights reserved
NOTE: This short, update supplement presupposes that the reader has prepared her/himself by reviewing the earlier works upon which this work is based...especially "Dark-Dark-Light: Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of)" and "The History of the Universe in Scalar Graphics." Works to review include:
Specifically, we will be providing some simple visual portraits of the elementary particles. These diagrammatic illustrations will allow us to “see” how the concepts might in fact play out. Of course, what we are doing is illustrating the invisible …namely spacetime (SpaceTime=ST) itself and the matter and fields that are to populate it. As it will hopefully be clear, ST and the matter and fields are integrally interrelated …one defining the other and it is in the ultimate conservation of ST that results in and from the individual conservations of energy, force, momentum and charge. Any successful merging of the very large (general relativity) and the very small (quantum mechanics) into a theory of Quantum Gravity will have to address these fundamentals of ST.
The concepts, while spread across all the papers cited above, have been specifically excerpted from
The Conservation of Spacetime by The Conservation of Force” (from parts II-IV)
In addition, there will be specific and/or direct quotes from the original “LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose,” (copyright 1985, Reginald Brooks) book that launched it all …including The LUFE Matrix. The book provides a complete and detailed look at the geometry of ST and the fields, energy and matter that occupy it. A full text and mathematical presentation are fully supplemented with some 137 hand-drawn illustrations in pen/brush and ink.
While being beyond the scope of this present white paper, it is the author’s intention to bring the entire book online …as it becomes digitized. A table of contents is presented here at this link: “LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-Preface and Table of Contents.”
This provides a detailed “portrait” that accounts for the mass, charge, spin …as well as lepton, baryon and isospin numbers, spinor rotation, and the motion, momentum and energy of the ST particles.
Appendix Set II in LUFE brings together five focus papers on Fundamental Constants:
4.) The LUFE Matrix
5.) The Atom
that were completed in 1986-07. They provide important insights into the LUFE model and a pre-read of these may benefit many readers …especially the paper on The Atom: Mass Variation in the Electron by Photon Absorption and The Inverse Square Law. This work is directly referenced below.
The purpose of this white paper is to pre-empt that detailed look, providing a big picture overview …spotlighting the role of symmetry and asymmetry in providing for the presence of the entire Universe, including that which is hidden and unseen.
The overview will hopefully show how the photon, graviton and specifically the Higgs boson provides the all-important interface between the observed realty of our Universe and the sub-Planck Event Horizon vacuum continuum that lies beneath. This interface, in accounting for the checks and balances of the observable Universe (and all the conservation laws that reside therein), does so by being the gatekeeper of the ST …insuring that there is always a Conservation of ST through the Conservation of the Force …and thus the energy… that it contains.
It is not much of a reach after applying the principles described herein, to “see” how coercing two oppositely-handed fermionic electron units upon a metallic …or better yet, magnetic …substrate, under conditions which essentially trick them into a combined quantum state that mimics that of boson, that superconductivity shall follow. After all, bosons do not feel the restraint or resistance that ordinary fermions obeying the Pauli exclusion principle do.
(click for larger image)
In Figure 1., a simplified diagram of the SpaceTime (ST) axis as described in “LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose,” copyright 1985, Reginald Brooks. a) Depicts the horizontal magnetic charge vector, negative to positive, left to right; b) depicts the vertical electric charge vector, negative to positive, bottom to top; c) shows the course of the magnetic charge vector as it pulses out and back to its singularity, or origin; d) shows the electric charge vector as it pulses out of its singularity and back. The singularity for each ST unit represents that point below our normal sense of dimension (1D/2D/3D,…)that we can see and/or measure… that is, it lies below the Planck Event Horizon, existing in the inter-connected sub-ST continuum below. To note is that to satisfy the strict accounting needs of Nature, including but not limited to the constancy of the speed of light and the requirement to establish a net integral charge (electric, as well as magnetic) expression (0, 1, 2), ST unit pulses out (and back) along its particular vector to express its charge, spin and mass. For the horizontal magnetic spin and the vertical electric charge pulses the vectors are additive in that equal and opposite vectors will cancel (symmetry), while unequal (asymmetry) vectors will provide a net expression. “There is no net charge expression without accompanying mass expression, while there can be the opposite, a massive ST unit with zero net charge. Asymmetry of the charge and spin vectors is a requirement for net expression of these parameters. The mass forming vector is not really a separate structural vector in the same sense as the charge and spin vectors. Rather it is manifested as the result of the particular combination(s) of the other two and in the end acts just like a vector in the sense that if those combinations produce a composite asymmetry mass is expressed (like a localized knot in the ST field)”(from “Dark Matter = Dark Energy”).
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Figure 2. Two “portraits” of the photon ST unit: In a) we have a left-right handed photon; in b) a right-left handed photon (reading left to right). Notice that in this snapshot of either photon, we are seeing it at its full extension of its pulse generation, extended fully outward symmetrically along all four negative and positive vector paths. The charge vectors are equal and opposite and thus add up to a zero net expression. The horizontal spin vectors, however, are spinning in the same direction, each additively contributing ½ unit of spin angular momentum (spin) for a net expression of spin = 1 for both the left-right and right-left handed photons. One can see that if a left-right and right-left handed photon were to occupy the same ST, as bosons are want to do, the “net” expression of spin, as well as charge and mass, would be zero, giving us the mother of all ST unit particles, the Higgs boson. On the other hand, combining either two left-right handed, or two right-left handed, photons would give the massless, chargeless, spin=2 graviton. Such constructive and destructive interference of ST unit photons (or photon-like “matter waves”) occurs routinely from each and every ST unit as it pulses in to and out of existence from its singularity, forming as it does the ST field itself.
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Figure 3. The “portrait” of the: a) left-handed electron and its associated anti-neutrino; b) right-handed electron and its associated anti-neutrino; c) left-handed positron and its associated neutrino; and, d) right-handed positron and its associated neutrino. The positron is the electron’s anti-particle. The electron’s anti-neutrino anti-particle is the neutrino. Note that, in all cases, the anti-neutrino or neutrino, while generated simultaneously with the pulse generation of the electron or positron, respectively, is itself a separate ST unit …one without a vertical charge vector component (and with little or no mass).
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Figure 4. Quarks are fermion ST units with non-integral, fractional charge. The proton is composed of two “up” quarks with a +2/3 vertical charge (and a –1/3 horizontal charge) and one “down” quark with a –1/3 vertical charge (and a +2/3 horizontal charge). Together, they pulse propagate to form a ST unit with a net +1 vertical charge (and a net 0 horizontal charge). The proton comes in either left- or right-handed forms. Rotation (180 degrees) gives their anti-particles. Spinor rotation generates the neutron ST units.
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Figure 5.The photon, like all ST units, pulse propagates into, and out of, existence. In doing so it generates a secondary ST matter wave(s) which radiate out in all directions. These ST matter waves continue to pulse propagate forming a wave-form pattern which can interfere …constructively and/or destructively with other wave-forms from other ST matter waves formed from other ST units.
The constructive interference of these photon-like matter waves generates the graviton. The deconstructive interference forms the Higgs boson.
(click for larger image)
Figure 6.When the perfect equal and opposite symmetry of the Higgs boson …which resides at the interface of the visible and invisible view of the Universe …is broken, the photon is generated. The photon has only slightly less-perfect symmetry than the Higgs boson. Its asymmetry lies in its horizontal spin angular momentum vector. It now has a net spin of +1. This, along with its rotation, allows it to move a net of one quantum unit of ST for every pulse propagation of its photon ST unit form. Thus arises the Conservation of the Velocity of Light and from it the Conservation of ST. Should two similar photons overlap, a graviton is temporarily born. Should two opposite photons overlap, a Higgs boson is reborn.
Bosons, a special group of sub-atomic particles, are responsible for the expression of force. They do it by being the ambassadors of change from one particle to another and thus are known as “exchange quanta/vectors.”
For each of the four known forces there is an associated exchange quanta: the graviton (boson) exchanges curvature information (force) between all forms of energy (matter and fields).
The photon (boson) exchanges electromagnetic charge information (force) between particles (and probably fields as well) that carry a net charge expression.
The graviton and photon bosons have very similar properties that define them …the only difference being that the photon has spin=1, while the graviton has spin=2. Both are massless, chargeless particles whose “force” effect falls off with the square of the distance traveled (Inverse Square Law).
The weak nuclear force, finds its expressive vector needs to be of a relatively short range between the protons and neutrons of the nucleon. The W-, W+ and Z0 bosons are generated as massive boson particles …thus sub-light speed and a short span (distance) of action. Through an elaborate process with mesons, these short-lived bosons mediate the net attraction/repulsion force between the elements of the nucleus.
And of course, the gluon bosons hold the quark groupings together forming the strong nuclear force.
Common to all bosons is the property that they do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) …a principle obeyed by all other known particles, collectively known as fermions. The PEP prevents like-minded particles …particles identical in their core ID of mass, charge and spin …to occupy the same quantum space. All such particles …fermions …have a net spin expression of 1/2, 3/2, …and do obey the PEP.
All bosons have a net spin spin of 0, 1, 2, …. All bosons can occupy the same quantum state. They can overlap, overlay and build up and down adjusting the density of their vector force expression as conditions warrant.
As proposed earlier in “Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of): The Conservation of Spacetime by The Conservation of Force,” a fifth force …and importantly, a conserved property …is that of force, and through it, ST itself. The Conservation of SpaceTime is a universal, conserved property intimately …indivisibly …adjoined to the overall Conservation of Energy. It does so by the conserved property of force. As the fifth force, force maintains the ebb and flow of energy, which is itself an expression of the ST continuum.
Another way of looking at this is as follows: The ST continuum is the total energy of the universe. All matter and fields …all energy …is an expression of this total energy. In areas of high energy density, the ST continuum is denser as well. Wavelengths are smaller, frequencies are higher, clocks run slower (remember that the velocity of light is constant). In areas of low energy density, the reverse is true. The Conservation of Force …which serves this overall Conservation of SpaceTime …brokers the energy distribution from one area to another. It must ultimately also be conserved because there can be no net gain (or loss) of energy.
It does by the Higgs boson …and its multi-potential offspring, the photon and graviton bosons.
And it is not the super-massive Higgs boson that the old Standard Theory predicted years ago. Rather the Higgs boson is a perfectly symmetrical, massless, chargeless, and spinless progenitor particle. From it, all other particles, including the photon and graviton, can be derived by the appropriate break(s) in its inherent perfect symmetry.
The ST continuum is not a grid upon which the elements of the Universe are embedded. The ST continuum is all the elements of the Universe…all the energy distributed as matter and fields …and as such, is a conserved entity. ST is created over and over with each pulse-generation of its collective energy …matter and fields.
We know that energy is conserved …as is momentum, angular momentum and charge. The distribution of ST, while ultimately being true to the overall Conservation of Energy, can be thought as micro-managed through “force” and the vector bosons that mediate it. Obviously …overall …the Conservation of Energy, Charge and Momentum absolutely requires the Conservation of Force as well.
The density distribution of ST …that is on one hand the high density ST corresponds with high energy, be it mass, charge or spin of the matter or fields, including all that is dark matter, and, conversely on the other hand, all that is called the expansive dark energy …and also mediated by force vector bosons …resulting in low density ST distribution …is not without strict accounting procedures intact.
The bosons, but especially the Higgs boson and its close relatives the photon and graviton bosons, can concentrate the ST in a given area of great density here, but only if the ST over there is expanded …and it will be through the Conservation Laws …affecting a lower density (read: expanding ST). Thus, there is a Conservation of ST mediated by a Conservation of Force that ultimately always answers to the overall Conservation of Energy.
F∆s = E
In our “seen” world, ST is represented by the photon and it lightspeed velocity, c. In our “unseen” hidden ST continuum world, ST is represented by the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson can transform into any matter or field particle in the ST continuum and then be realized, or “seen” in our visible world.
Fig.7a. Simplified LUFE Matrix
As shown in the simplified view of The LUFE Matrix (Fig.7a.), the whole dynamics of the ST continuum is encapsulated by the 5x5 diagrammatic grid, and specifically to the diagonals of c, c2, c3, c4 and c5.
Translated, lightspeed, c:
c = velocity of light
c2 = velocity of light2
= potential difference in volts
= mass/distance (displacement)
c3 = velocity of light3
= flow of charge in amps
= momentum/distance = charge/time
c4 = velocity of light4
c5 = velocity of light5
= volts x amps
= force x c
The Conservation of Energy, of course, translates ultimately to the Conservation of Energy over time, or E/t, and that equals power. That is, power is energy per time (energy per second). Overall, Conservation of Energy means Conservation of Power.
As concluded in the earlier papers referred above, the Conservation Laws do not stand alone, independent of each other. Rather, they are completely tied together …interconnected. The Conservation of Charge, Momentum, Angular Momentum and Force are all tied ultimately to the Conservation of Energy. And the ultimate accounting for the Conservation of Energy occurs over time and thus encompasses the Conservation of Power (Conservation of Energy/time). While always a constant, the velocity of light defines the fundamentals of that conservation dynamic. And it, times the force, equals the power.
Fc = P
as, FS = E, and P = E/t and c = space/time = s/t
[Parts excerpted from “LUFE: Appendix Set II”]
Fundamental Constants: 5. The Atom
“Mass Variation in the Electron by Photon Absorption and The Inverse Square Law” pages 29-33, 1986
The entire Big Bang scenario may be pictured as a series of quantum jumps of expansion, analogous to that in the atom. That expansion is at least in part do to mass concealment by photons, suggests that the Big Bang is to be characterized by a series of quantum expansions in which each successive level requires a less energetic photon to conceal mass.
In the stellar furnace, the high-energy photons conceal much of the electrons (and possibly proton and neutron) mass as expansion occurs during the fusion process of the stars life cycle. Later, when a star sheds energy in a supernova, its subsequent gravitational collapse is markedly enhanced if the e-/p+/n0 which remain have fewer and less energetic photons around to conceal the full expression of their mass.
I would suggest that cosmic expansion be looked at in terms of the inverse square law as it is aptly demonstrated in the atom. Successive cosmic “freezings” of the radiant energy in which the universe is bathed occurs discontinuously, thus accounting for the major division between the radiation-dominated and the matter-dominated eras of the early universe. During the initial radiation-dominated era, most of the energy of the universe was tied up in energetic photons (as well as in neutrinos and antineutrinos). Within this era, matter/antimatter ST units were formed and annihilated, eventually leading to a plasma state in which free electrons, protons and neutrons, as well as proton-neutron nuclei, exist amongst the high energy photons.
Coincidental with the transfer of the bulk of the energy as radiation to the bulk of the energy as matter, the universe became transparent as free electrons bound themselves to nuclei to form atoms. The question is, can photons conceal the mass of any particle, or only electrons?
I would suggest that this major transition is no coincidence, but is linked to the electron-photon mass concealment described for the atom. Because free electrons accelerated by magnetic fields radiate light, the same mechanism for photon absorption and emission is most likely operable, thus free electrons in the plasma state, as in the radiation-dominated era, probably had much of their gravitational pull neutralized as they absorbed mass-concealing photons continuously. This enhanced expansion and expansion means cooling as the wavelengths are increased. Less energetic photons result in less mass concealment of the electron and subsequently the dual effect was to favor the atomic structure, the pre-requisite for galaxy formation.
Now, if photon can also conceal part, or all, of the mass of the much more mass-intensive proton-neutron ST unit, than a key ingredient in Big Bang cosmology and subsequent atomic, molecular and galactic formation has been revealed. Then the singularity where all time and all space, and thus all mass/energy, are confined would in effect be massless, or become massless, as ultra-high energy photons, perhaps generated by the symmetry break of the Higgs particle, explode outward. Any massive particles formed early on would not only be annihilated by their antiparticle, but would be made mass-ineffective, thus enhancing the inflationary expansion mode. Massive ST units could be homogenously distributed along with radiation. Then when the critical cooling temperature is approached (30000K) by this expansion, there would be the sudden appearance of the concealed mass, and clumping of matter would be instigated. Atomic clumping with subsequent photon absorption primes the clumping process for now the expansion of the electrons in the atom, while losing a small amount of mass expression, ties up some of the energetic photons, thus breaking some of the expansive nature of the photons on the universe at large. Mass takes over radiation as the principle domain of energy. Atoms become the seeds from which stars grow, as the cycle is repeated in stellar evolution.
Supernova explosions would mean that in addition to the loss of the radiant pressure that kept the star from gravitational collapse, now the remaining matter will have less mass-concealment by photons and thus is more gravitationally active. Perhaps singularities are where the potential mass of all matter present is completely neutralized by very high energy, mass-concealing photons. A temporary equilibrium in which the Higgs state is reached in which there is no mass, no charge, no spin. The infinity problem associated with these singularities is thus resolved. The universe is closed, oscillating form this, or approaching this, singularity state to that of maximum expansion.
Mass becomes the presentation of a certain amount of directionally-dependent ST, and it may be neutralized, at least temporarily, by photon absorption. While mass is a vector which varies with ST extension and is ultimately derived from the intrinsic momentum, that is the momentum associated with its pulse generation, of the ST unit.
Because there are so many photons to electrons in the universe, it is quite conceivable that most electrons have some of their mass hidden by some photon, most of the time. In fact, spontaneous decay of an electron in an excited state is probably the result of it being hit by another appropriate photon (stimulated emission of photons). This means the universe is expanding at least in part because the mass of the electrons are hidden, the gravitational pull lessened and the actual ST presence of the electron wavelength is enlarged. Perhaps the proton/neutron has a similar interaction with photons of the proper energy.
Most of the time any photon hits an electron the reaction is instantaneous and any mass changes of the electron are very brief. Expansion of the electrons orbit only occurs by decreasing its mass and frequency of presentation, thus increasing its wavelength, and only spectral photons whose energies will put the electrons in a higher excited state in accordance to the inverse square law, are allowed. Collapse of the excited orbit results in photon emission, and the electron gains back its weight. Charge remains constant and integral throughout because it is dependent on the 10 pulse generation at c=λv, and not the 20, 30, 40, 50 pulse forms. All these latter mass-related forms are at the constant velocity of c/137 and respective frequencies of v/137. The pulse generation velocities of the electron are not to be confused with the net linear motion of a free electron. Freely moving electrons are subject to the mass-increases-with-velocity-relativity effects.
During the Big Bang era, very high-energy photons would have concealed more mass, allowing for greater inflationary-type of expansion steps to occur, and now in the modern era with a background radiation of 30K, expansion, though still occurring, is slow and steadily decreasing. The mass-concealment rate of the photons is decreasing with time.
[Author’s note 12-10-08: Evidence for the INCREASED expansion of the universe, first discovered independently in 1998 by Saul Perlmutter of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and, Brian Schmidt of the Australian National University, has accumulated since LUFE was written in 1985. Most of the evidence for this phenomenon, referred to as Dark Energy, is based on measurements of light patterns from similar Type 1a supernova. The further out they looked, the fainter
and redder these “standard” light objects became, indicating an expansion (Red-shifting) of the wavelengths. This has been interpreted as an increasing expansion of the Universe.
A recent article in the New York Times “Dark, Perhaps Forever” by Dennis Overbye does an excellent job of presenting the current dilemma …the big question …of the theoretical physics community to the general public. Jonathan Corum provides the clear graphic, with NASA’s Space Telescope Science Institute as the source. Highly recommended. (www.nytimes.com/2008/06/03/science/03dark.html?_r=1)
It is pertinent to our discussion here that the very same processes that are involved with the basic atom …absorption and release of spectral photons by the electron occurring through actual variation in its mass can contribute to the discussion of Dark Energy. The expansion of wavelengths (Red-shifting) increases with distance, and thus time. The further away one looks, the further back in time ones sees, and the further back, the closer one is to the effects of the inflationary expansion of the Universe that was the beginning of the end of the radiation-dominated era. The first Type 1A supernova that could, and did, form after inflation had their “local” ST continuum stretched (inflated) relative to all the subsequent “local” ST continuums that sequentially followed. Conservation of ST = Conservation of Energy. As the inflationary era was unfolding, the mass-concealment by the photons was diminishing resulting in the increased clumping of the energy into matter (atoms, stars, galaxies). At the beginning of this, the earliest …and thus furthest matter out there …was forming in relatively more expanded ST than the matter that clumped together thereafter. When we look at that light from that earlier period it looks redder, more expanded, because it is …it fulfilled it normal expression of atoms, stars and galaxies in an expanded ST …expanded relative to our rather contracted ST which followed. Conservation of ST demands that the expanded ST out “there” be balanced (compensated if you will) with contracted ST “here.” The photon, and graviton, bosons are the messengers of that compensatory change …and the Higgs boson is the ultimate interface, or gateway, which parents the balance sheet of accountability across the entire ST continuum.
Fractal Nature of the Universes
||| | | | | | | | | |
Era decoupling era Era
PMC=Photon Mass Concealment
Figure 7b. In this generic version of the ST continuum over the lifespan of the Universe, the radiation era is characterized as being in a state of very high energy density (initially) and is composed almost entirely of fields (radiation). This super-saturation of photons would have concealed most of the mass of the electrons (and possibly the protons/neutrons as well). This brief period lead to the inflationary expansion of the Universe at large as the ST continuum becomes expanded. Electrons (and presumably protons/neutrons) are also expanded by this photon mass concealment. A phase change occurs as the rapid expansion leads to the de-coupling of the photons from the electrons (and protons/neutrons) and the latter regain much of their inherent mass expression. Overtime, this de-coupling continues to greater and greater degrees forming the electron (and proton/neutron) masses that we measure today as their rest mass. See Figure 7c. for a graphic depicting how relative this degree of expansion and de-coupling is to a privileged observer.
(click for larger image)
Figure 7c. The further one looks back in time, the greater the ST expansion, relative to “now”, and the more a Type 1a Supernova will be red-shifted.
The ST continuum, mediated by the Higgs boson through its surrogates, the photon and graviton, is both created and therefore a manifestation of its energy …its matter and fields …and as such, is dynamic.
Once we recognize that it is flexible …subject to fluctuations based on the current energy expression …we can see that some of our previous assumptions on the nature of the visibly “seen” Universe may have to be discarded …along with, in some cases, the conclusions based on those assumptions.
One such assumption, is that the idea that a given star-type supernova would provide a “standard candle” …or energy footprint …for all viewers at all times and all locales. This is simply not true.
The “standard candles” that burned in the very early Universe shortly after inflation will not give an energy footprint that is the same as one nearby and relatively more recent. It will have been formed during …in the context of …the rapidly expanding ST continuum of post-inflation. Its candle would naturally be fainter and redder as its wavelengths would all be energetically shifted to longer wavelengths …as compared to “standard candles” from all the way back there to here.
Ok, so now that we know the cause of the red-shifting …initial rapid expansion of the ST continuum, post-inflation …what does that tells us about the current situation …and our notion of Dark Energy? Is the Universe still expanding at an accelerated rate the further out and back in time you go …beyond the expansion it already went through?
I believe the answer is yes …as long as there is contraction in the ST continuum occurring elsewhere to balance this expansion.
While the photons contribute to the expansion (and some contraction) of ST, the gravitons focus on its contraction. They are the mediators of the Dark Matter. Dark Matter is simply contracted, high-density ST. It is always balanced by the expanded, lower-energy ST …that which we call Dark Energy.
The Conservation of ST, mediated by the perfect symmetry, massless-chargeless-spinless Higgs boson, in effect means that:
Dark Matter = Dark Energy (the inverse of)
1 = ST continuum
The fractal nature of the Universe …revealed from the quarks to the atoms, from the stars to the black holes …means that there will be numerous “anomalies” of relative energy densities …or the lack of …as the interference patterns of the subsystems of the Higgs, graviton and photon bosons cross paths …forming high, low and neutral points of interest throughout our Universe (Suns corona, “Big Void”, Dark Energy, Dark Matter).
It’s back to “Dark-Dark-Light”]
In closing, a final look at the inverse square law is in order as I would suggest that a very fundamental relationship between space and time is described by this law. Limitations of space and time for this expose` require that only the briefest of introductions to this new type of conceptual mathematics be presented.
The gist of it all is the reduction of basic, fundamental physical attributes of nature to common units of so much space and time presented in matrix form and referred to as the LUFE Matrix. Spatial parameters are presented horizontally, temporal parameters vertically, each in exponential form. Multiplication requires addition of the exponential forms, division their subtraction. Addition or subtraction result in no change of the exponential.
Space and time are perpendicular to each other. On the matrix, complexity increases diagonally starting at the upper left corner. Where does the inverse square law come in?
It is in the way in which the matrix is built. Each spatial exponent (λ1, λ2, λ3 …) extends completely up and down, and each temporal exponent extends completely across its horizontal. Now it is only in the dynamic area where the two exponents, spatial and temporal, cross (intercept) that define space-time parameters like energy, mass, momentum, etc. and because of this manner of interaction, the matrix builds complexity exactly as in the inverse square law, especially when visualized as the summation of the odd-number series as described before.
Let’s start simple, c=λv. Frequency is the reciprocal of elapsed time (v=1/Te), so for c=λv, we see that in terms of space-time, that equals λ x 1/Te=λ/Te or cm/sec. Visually it is expressed as the intercept of the λ column with the v (or 1/Te) row, to produce the first square on the matrix, c. See Fig. 7a.[above]
Just as in the inverse square law, c2 may be seen to be that area occupied by the intercept of two units of λ, λ2, and two units of time or frequency, v2 (or 1/T2e). c2=λ2v2=cm2/sec2. Notice that c2 occupies four squares. c3=λ3v3 and so on.
Thus the c, c2, c3, c4, c5 series, all of which are symmetrically formed of equal amounts of space per time for each exponent, builds up as the area within the matrix that each individual parameter describes is squared. Thus 12=1, 22=4, 32=9, 42=16, 52=25. It is the asymmetrical amounts of space and time units which gives rise to many of the basic attributes, ie. mass, energy, p, h, etc.
The value of the LUFE Matrix includes at least the following:
1.) Foremost is the concept that space-time is the fundamental constituent of nature, more complex physical attributes such as energy, Planck’s constant, mass, charge, momentum, etc. are built of space-time constituents.
2.) Space-time=c, the velocity of light, and since c=λv, then the whole matrix may be skewed in any frame of reference under consideration according to the λ or v. When the λ are long, the v is short and the whole matrix and the values it contains, will be skewed horizontally, at the expense of verticality, and vice versa for short wavelengths. This reflects and re-affirms the tenets of Special Relativity.
3.) The tenets of Quantum Mechanics are also reflected in several ways; a.) the various forms of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle can be seen, ΔpΔx≥h/2π, ΔEΔt≥h/2π, ΔEΔ1/v≥h/2π and b.) energy comes in chunks of Planck’s constant per unit of time, as E=hv.
4.) The tenets of classical physics which remain valid in the modern physical view of nature are equally valid in the LUFE Matrix. Thus concepts like watts=volts times amps, or pressure=force per unit area, or momentum=mass times velocity, etc. are readily accounted for and easily visualized as they are built of common units of space and time.
5.) The ability to predict, one of the foremost goals of science, is enhanced by this conceptualization.
[Author’s note: The tenets of General Relativity are also upheld by the LUFE Matrix …indeed the conceptualizations of Albert Einstein go to the heart of the how and why LUFE came to be.]
If we look at the 20, 30, 40 and 50 ST forms of the electron in terms of the force of gravity, we see that the force does indeed fall off inverse squarely with the distance for the electron ST forms. Naturally, the force of electromagnetism, dependent only on the 10 ST form, is constant for each 20, 30, 40 and 50 ST form. Indeed, it can be said that it is do to the nature of the pulse propagation into these 20, 30, 40, and 50 ST forms, and the ST matter waves that each radiates, that the force of gravity follows the inverse square law. See Fig. 8.[in the paper]
[Parts excerpted from “Dark Matter = Dark Energy”]
Conservation of Force (from part II)
Fattraction = Frepulsion (Conservation of Force)
· Picture a cross-section through the ST continuum where the curvature of ST is represented by vertical lines. In the middle, which also would represent ideal, boring ST the lines would be perfectly vertical and evenly spaced. Towards the increasing mass-energy density on our left, the lines would increasingly curve towards the left as the spacing between the lines also decreases in progression, depicting what effectively becomes the gravitationally positive "missing mass", or dark matter. Towards the right where the mass-energy density progressively thins out, the vertical lines become spaced further and further apart, and, become increasingly curved to the right, depicting what effectively becomes the negative or antigravity of the dark energy. The image is not far removed from the common image of iron filings in the presence of the opposite poles of a magnet, i.e. a magnetic field.
· Expansion and contraction are relative concepts…because of the relativity of ST. If ST consists of all the Planck h units and all the Planck h units times all their frequencies of presentation equals a constant Total Energy, ET, then there can be no net expansion or contraction of the universe…only that of one occurs at the expense of the other. The more contraction force is expressed here, the more the expansion force is expressed there. E = hν will not allow it any other way. The universe…and ST…is expanding at an accelerated rate if viewed from a relatively high ST contraction position.
· It is very helpful to think of ST as space/time, or simply as distance (displacement) per unit of time (or frequency):
λ /t = λ ν .
· All ST manifests itself as mass or mass-energy (matter or fields). All ST exists as pulses, at a given frequency related to their energy, of Planck's unit of h, and the energy of any such ST existence is
E = hν .
· Mass, as matter, represents an asymmetry in a given ST parameter (an attribute which generally limits its mobility, but also provides for net expressions of the charge vector, whether +, -, or 0; and, the spin, or intrinsic angular momentum, vector).
· Mass-energy, as a field, represents the relatively symmetrical expression of the ST (an attribute which allows for its lack of mass, lightspeed mobility, neutrality of the charge vector, and gauge boson behavior, i.e. the spin vector is always paired, resulting in only net integral spins of 0, 1 or 2). It is relatively symmetrical, and not absolutely symmetrical. The Higgs Boson represents the absolute symmetry, the progenitor of the ST field. Breaking the symmetry of the Higgs Boson generates the relatively symmetrical ST field mentioned above, which can itself form, through further symmetry breaking, the matter field, a.k.a. the mass expression.
· This relatively symmetrical ST field mimics in every way the massless, chargeless, spin = 1 photon, whose λ and ν are always reciprocally related to insure that the velocity of light, equals the fundamental constant of nature:
c = λ ν .
*fundamental difference to Standard Theory is duly noted
**mass of the neutrino family of leptons is still unknown
Table I. Comparing the mass, charge and spin of lepton/quark fermion matter to that of its surrounding, non-nuclear field gauge bosons.
· Two photons (spin = 1) interfere to form the graviton (spin = 2).
· Photons consist of two spin 1/2 (fermion) units aligned such that their mass and charge vectors are equal and opposite, whereas the spin angular momentum vectors point in the same circular direction and thus are additive, as 1/2 + 1/2 = 1.
· Gravitons consist of two or more photons at the point of constructive interference(s), i.e. the spin 1 of each photon is in the same direction and thus additive, to give spin = 2.
· Higgs Boson consists of two photons with absolute symmetry in that their mass, charge and spin vectors are all equal and opposite and thus net spin = + 1/2 + -1/2 = 0; charge = +1 + -1 = 0; and, mass spin = 0. Two opposite spin interfering photons will thus form a Higgs Boson, as will two opposite spin gravitons.
· The high curvature of ST in the presence of mass/mass-energy is then a relative curvature, borrowing from a fixed, constant pool of Total Energy, ET, thus assuring that the velocity of light remains constant. The Conservation of ST Curvature = the Conservation of Force = the Conservation of the Velocity of Light = the Conservation of Momentum (Linear and Angular) = the Conservation of Energy. Each conservation exists, not as independently conserved parameters, but rather as the interconnectedness of ST from simple to multiple dimensions. The interplay between the rate of Planck pulse unit of h, and the symmetry/asymmetry orientation of its component vectors, defines the net expression of charge, mass, spin and the resultant mobility of the entire ST field, whether of mass or massless energy. The fundamental building block of that interplay is that of the simplest expression of ST, c, the velocity of light, as
λ ν .
· It is conceptually key to note how important the role of asymmetry is in defining the parameters of matter…like charge, mass, momentum and spin (angular momentum), and of course energy, as we can see in the LUFE Matrix. It is a similar asymmetry that structurally gives the vectors of matter, fields and their force moderating bosons, their net expression of such mass, charge and spin, as well as velocity and ultimately their energy signature. At the same time, in other ST entities, the near perfect symmetry of similar vectors results in other particles having zero net expression of mass and charge, while demonstrating only integral (additive vectors of 1/2) expressions of spin (i.e. photons, gluons and gravitons with spins of 1, 1 and 2, respectively). Perfect symmetry being the sole guest of the Higgs boson (massless, chargeless, and spinless in its ideal state, but with the full potential to break its perfect symmetry and form any ST entity, be it matter or field).
(click to enlarge image)
In Figure 8., a simplified LUFE Matrix is laid out with λ and ν axis on the left and with S and 1/T axis on the right.
· The physical parameters are laid out in parallel diagonal rows, becoming a little more asymmetrical to space and time dimensions as they become removed from the midline.
· Velocity, mass/momentum, charge, and spin become the primary fingerprints, or ID, which fundamentally define the energy signature of any ST matter or particle. These are the same parameters that inform the Conservation Laws.
· All of this is set in the context of the forces of interaction. Conventional wisdom of the Standard Theory accounts for four such forces. Gravity, by far the weakest of the four, is moderated by the graviton, gg , gauge boson while electromagnetism is moderated by the photon, g , gauge boson. The weak force of nuclear decay, or interaction, is moderated by the W and Z gauge bosons, while the strong nuclear force is moderated by a set of color charged gluon gauge bosons. It is becoming abundantly clear that the fifth force is that of the ST field, a.k.a. the Higgs field, which is the ideal, perfect symmetry and multipotential generative field in which all other matter and fields are contained and expressed in. It is moderated by the Higgs boson, H. Ultimately, all force fields are conserved in the same way that all energy is.
(click to enlarge image)
Table II. Comparison of first generation elementary particles with their force carrying gauge and non-gauge bosons (mesons).
· In Table II we see that each parameter is the net expression of the individual ST units (lepton or quark fermions or photon-like gauge bosons) which composed it. Each of these is subject to conditions of symmetry or asymmetry within which accounts for that net expression.
· Think of it this way. The Higgs boson represents the exchange particle defining the Higgs field. It is massless, chargeless and spinless. The ST units that define these three primary fingerprint ID parameters are capable of existing in either symmetrical or asymmetrical sets. Sets are composed of individual vector components such that a set of two equal but opposite (mass, charge or spin) vectors will result in a net symmetrical expression of zero. If the vectors are instead, lined up additively, then the result is a net asymmetrical expression of mass, charge and/or spin. For example, two up quarks with charge +2/3 combined with 1 down quark with charge -1/3 gives a net asymmetrical expression of charge +1 (as in the proton). Likewise, one up +2/3 plus 2 down -1/3 charges for the neutron result in a net symmetrical charge expression of zero.
· Thus the Higgs boson represents that state where the mass, charge and spin vectors (contained within the ST units forming it) are each lined up to point in equal but opposite directions to give a net symmetrical expression of 0, 0, and 0, respectively.
· Break the symmetry of the spin vector, changing it from equal and opposite, to additive, and you now have the graviton at mass 0, charge 0 and spin 2. The graviton is actually composed of two spin 1 photons that are constructively added together (i.e. positive interference construction). More on this shortly.
· The photon, once again, represents the fundamental dynamic dimensional ST particle that has mass 0, charge 0 and spin 1. It is symmetrical in two vectors (mass and charge), but asymmetrical in spin (which, along with zero mass, accounts for its net lightspeed velocity with each ST pulse).
· To note is that all spin on any particle can point in one of two opposite directions and therefore you can have net expressions of spin that are equal and opposite, i.e. left-handed and right-handed. Likewise, i.e. the photon, you can have left- and right-handed spin 1 states (or counter-clockwise and clockwise if you're riding the photon).
· So going up the particle ladder, we have photons which have asymmetrical spin 1 vectors which can spin additively in one of two directions, say either clockwise, Ck, or counterclockwise, CCk. Now if two Ck photons constructively interfere, they generate (momentarily) a graviton with spin 2 (Ck). Likewise, two CCk photons can generate a graviton with spin 2 (CCk). However, a Ck photon interfering with a CCk photon will generate a spin 0, mass 0, charge 0 Higgs boson.
· Because bosons can, unlike spin 1/2 fermions, exist in the same quantum place and time simultaneously, they can and do readily interfere with each other as they radiate out from their source. In so doing they form a true and perfect interference pattern when they are of the same energy (c=l n , E=hn ), or a less perfect pattern when they encounter photons of different energies. It is these spontaneously generated, yet transient, constructive and destructive interferences that generate the elusive graviton and Higgs boson particles. Because the photons pass through each other, the transient pattern at one ST location is repeatedly regenerated in each ST upon which it encounters another photon. The evolving ST field of photons, gravitons and Higgs bosons is thus self-sustaining and indeed actually does define the ST. But there is more.
· All energy is gravitationally active. Our photon, graviton, Higgs boson ST field is both self-sustaining and gravitationally active. The greatest energy is located at the points of constructive interference (which we will arbitrarily designate as spin 1 Ck + spin 1 Ck = spin 2 Ck) and destructive interference (therefore, spin 1 CCk + spin 1 CCk = spin 2 CCk). This then presumes the least active gravitational energy at the nodes (i.e. spin 1 Ck + spin 1 CCk = spin 0) …the state of the Higgs boson.
· (Here we have to be careful. The spin vector defines the angular momentum of the particle and appears to be the drive energy for its movement. Therefore, gravitons with spin 2 (either Ck or CCk) will move with velocity of spin 1 photons or perhaps faster at 2c, or maybe they are at c2 and act like a potential difference to their surrounding ST. Similarly, perhaps the spin 0 Higgs boson loses its mobility as the spin vector becomes symmetrical. Does it also lose its gravitationally active and associated energy until it decomposes back into its equal but opposite spin 1 photons? On the other hand, the Higgs boson nodal state may remain a relatively static, but gravitationally active ST focal point with all sorts of consequences.
· Going down the ladder, photons also can, through further symmetry breaking, decompose, or de-resonate, into any of the particles which we associate with matter, i.e. leptons like the electron and neutrino or the quarks forming the proton, neutron, and meson, to name a few. In each case, whether generating spin 1/2 series fermions or spin 1 series bosons, there is further breakage of the symmetry allowing for different vector sets of mass, charge and spin to transform into the characteristic matter particles.
· The photon acts as a gateway particle between matter and fields. The velocity of light, c, is always, in its net expression, constant and is by its nature of defining the fundamental dynamic dimensional ST unit, the conservator of ST itself. Its equal but opposite set of charge vectors guarantees that any charged particles created from its symmetry break will always have a net expression of either 0 or some interval of 1. The photon and the velocity of light are the chief accountants of the universe.
· The photon may also generate matter when interfering with the right number of other photons, gravitons and or Higgs bosons. With appropriate energy signatures to allow for a symmetry break from the ST field to ST matter.
· If ST fields can become matter, can matter phase back into fields? Yes of course, as has already been known for close to a century now. Matter plus antimatter equals photons. But how can matter, plain matter, generate ST fields without annihilating itself in the process? Generating gravitational active ST fields as communicated with the graviton? Let's see how as we summarize all this next.
From dark to dark to light (from IV)
· In Part I, the Conservation of Force was called upon, as it follows naturally from the Conservation of Energy, Momentum, Angular Momentum, and ultimately, from the Conservation of ST itself, to elucidate the expansion of the universe. The dark, negative energy of the vacuum of space (Cosmological Constant) invoked by others to explain a simple geodynamic balance of ST forces. While the search for the mysterious form of dark matter gravitation has literally obscured the other end of that balance. We have instead invoked a fresh approach that connects the dark matter with the inverse of the dark energy (or vice versa).
· In Part II, the LUFE Matrix (a brief introduction) was called upon to further elaborate on the nature of spacetime, matter and fields, and the dynamic dimensional ST parameters that it defines. Here we more clearly see the interrelationships between the parameters, especially the key role that symmetry and/or asymmetry plays in the net expression of certain vector-defined ST parameters such as mass, charge and spin. Here one see how the ST field, as defined by the massless, chargeless photons, gravitons and Higgs bosons which make it, becomes the multidimensional fluid out of which condensates of matter are formed. Some of that matter condensate remains as bosons, and as such can co-exist with other bosons in the same state, as well as acting as communication/exchange messengers between the fermions and other bosons. Most of the other known matter condensate is indeed the leptons and quarks. The quarks make up the fermions like the proton and neutron, as well as the lesser bosons like the pion and kaon mesons.
· By itself, all such matter condensate only accounts for some 4% of the gravitational influence that surrounds any such matter congregation. Clearly, there is a need to account for the presence of the other 96% gravitational activity. Likewise, in the furthest and oldest reaches of the universe, we find what appears to be the opposite phenomenon…accelerated expansion of ST itself bereft of a causative agent, acting as though space is itself pushing things, matter, away…in effect a negative force, or energy, acting like some form of anti-gravity.
· Both phenomena can be explained with a single geodynamic view of ST as the primary structure of the universe that is manifest in real time and in real space. ST is the interface between the vacuum or subspace universe, that which lies below the Planck Event Horizon, and real space and time, that as we know as our universe. As the primary structure between the two universes it plays an absolutely critical and defining role as to the disposition, expression, fate and ultimate conservation of all those elements we can experience in our universe. ST is the gatekeeper of our universe. The matter and fields that are contained within the ST fall short of accounting for our entire universe precisely because they are but a part, and a relatively small part at that, of our entire universe. The true Conservation Laws of Lightspeed, Charge, mass, Mmomentum, Spin Angular Momentum, Energy that we are so familiar with, are really just parts, subsets, of the overall true conservation...that of the Conservation of ST. Conservation of ST leads to and explains all the other Conservation Laws, and, with the help of the LUFE Matrix, helps us see that there are a number of other Conservation Laws embedded therein, including the Conservation of Force. Newton has always had it right when he states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This is more than a statement about the Conservation of Momentum and Energy. Momentum per second equals force. Energy per distance unit equals force. Power divided by c equals force. The Conservation of Energy, which is parsed into units of momentum to prove the Conservation of Mmomentum, can also be parsed into units of force to reveal its conservation. It is because energy (especially in the form of energy/sec or power) is at the top of the ST dynamic dimensions heap (at 5 units, or 10 conventional space-time units of 5 units of S + 5 units of T) that all other parameters below are indeed conserved. If you skew the matrix, you skew the energy and all the parameters that support it. Yet you cannot screw the matrix. Let's see why.
· ST pulses. It pulses into and out of our "ordinary reality". From the vacuum of space, that which is really the continuum on the other side of the Planck Event Horizon, ST as matter and ST as field pulse into and out of existence. Pulsing into existence, ST must always meet certain stringent accounting requirements (which we have discovered to be the Conservation Laws).
o The net speed of light, c, will always be constant.
o The net charge expression shall always be 0 or whole integers (1, -1, …).
o The net spin expression shall always be 0 or whole integers for bosons, and half integer multiples for fermions.
o There can be no net + or - expressions of charge without mass (mass is intimately related with the charge vector).
o The Conservation of Energy (E = hν ) is inviolate, as the total power (energy/sec) of our universe is constant.
· All ST units, matter and field alike, must strictly account to these requirements. This is accomplished by building the ST pulses as sets of ST unit pulses which have simple vector expression polemics (i.e. on-off, clockwise-counterclockwise, up-down, in-out, yin-yang, etc.) built into them so that equal and opposite vector symmetries cancel out and vector asymmetries add up to net expressions. (Quarks, which do not have a net expression by themselves…asymptotic freedom…as they never exist alone, have charge vectors of ± 1/3 and ± 2/3, in a relationship in charge of 1:2. Net expression of ST matter units made of three quarks, as in the proton and neutron baryons, and two quarks, as in the form of a quark plus an anti-quark in the mesons, still have a net composite charge expression limited to whole integers, 0, 1, -1,….).
· The vector expression itself is perhaps local to the ST pulse or perhaps it is absolute to the vacuum continuum. Nevertheless, it is modular and functions as a simple pole-anti-pole switch. Together a coherent ST pulse is formed whose energy is a constant and reproducible primary signature of that ST unit. The rest-mass energy for any matter ST unit and the constancy of c for any massless, field ST unit is without variance.
· Pulsing from nothing to its full ST pulse expression and back, ST units pulse or vibrate alive in many ways similar to that described in string theory. It is entirely possible that during the pulse generation individual vector components are actually formed at velocities greater than c, but the net expression for c will always be constant for the ST unit itself so formed.
· At the full form of the ST pulse all its defining mass, charge and spin parameters are fully realized. Thereafter, part of the ST pulse energy collapses back onto itself and is reabsorbed into the singularity/vacuum port from whence it came, readying itself for the next pulse generation. A small part of that energy is given off as resonant matter waves…what are really boson ST field waves.
· It is these critically resonant-matter boson ST waves, mimicking the energy footprint of the matter ST pulse unit which formed them, which now continue outward into the mix of other ST pulses everywhere in the universe. Naturally their density is highest next to their source and so are the odds that they would constructively or deconstructively interfere with their " siblings" to form gravitons nearby, decreasing as the inverse square law dictates. These boson ST pulse waves act in every way like photons, the great gatekeepers of the matter-field ST. They have energy and become even more gravitationally active as they combine to become gravitons and Higgs bosons. Eventually this energy becomes reabsorbed back into the continuum, perhaps through the Higgs boson itself. As a ST nodal structure of perfect symmetry (0 mass, 0 charge, 0 spin), the Higgs boson may indeed by the ultimate gateway and gatekeeper between the vacuum continuum (below the Planck Event Horizon) and ST. This then is the light. The 96% missing, dark matter is really the ST field of photons (both ordinary and resonate-matter), gravitons and Higgs bosons.
(click to enlarge image)
In Figure 9., elementary particles and fundamental forces are laid out in a composite ST pulse unit(s) based on the difference of the spin 1/2, 3/2 fermions, which do obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and, the spin 0, 1, 2 bosons, which do not.
· Bursting from the invisible Planck Event Horizon below, into the ST matrix of the Higgs Boson Field and outward to realize their full ST expression are the fermions and bosons. The fermions form the matter. The bosons, most of which are massless and travel at c (excepting the massive W/Z gauge bosons of the weak force and the mesons, like π that facilitate nucleon transformations), are the main gauge force carrying particle of the strong, electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational forces. The Conservation of Force is mediated by the Higgs Boson ST Field, a force…the fifth force…that is carried by, and thus defined by, the Higgs Boson.
(click to enlarge image)
In Figure 10., the fermion field has been rearranged. It now it sandwiched in between the gauge and Higgs Boson Fields. It is organized now from spin 0 to spin 2.
· Spin, which may principally account for net mobility of any ST particle, is shown first at Spin 0, the Higgs Boson emerging from the black hole depths at the Planck Event Horizon. The spin 1/2 vectors forming any boson are cancelled out in their symmetrical arrangement in the Higgs Boson. It most likely does not move. Spin 1/2 (or 3/2 quark composites of three spin 1/2 vectors lined up to point in the same direction) fermions gain increasing mobility as their mass decreases in the third to first generations. Remember, there is no net charge expression without accompanying mass expression, while there can be the opposite, a massive ST unit with zero net charge. Asymmetry of the charge and spin vectors is a requirement for net expression of these parameters. The mass forming vector is not really a separate structural vector in the same sense as the charge and spin vectors. Rather it is manifested as the result of the particular combination(s) of the other two and in the end acts just like a vector in the sense that if those combinations produce a composite asymmetry mass is expressed (like a localized knot in the ST field). When they produce a composite symmetry, like in the Higgs, gluon, photon and graviton bosons, no mass is expressed and whatever asymmetry is present in the spin vectors (like the spin 1 gluons and photons, and the spin 2 gravitons), that spin energy now translates into 100% mobility with each ST pulse. The Higgs Boson, with spin 0 and charge 0, is assigned a mass and mobility of 0 here to be fully consistent with this model. Its perfect symmetry has no net expression mass, charge or spin. Nevertheless it has mass-energy resulting from the equal and opposite individual charge, spin (and mass) vectors. It spins in place acting as the multipotential transformative gateway that all other ST units are derived, and measured, from and return to. Through interference, photons can become gravitons or Higgs Bosons. Interference of gravitons can also regenerate Higgs. The accounting system for the Conservation Laws has come full circle.
(click for larger image)
Figure 11. Conservation of ST …the most fundamental constant of all …expresses itself by conserving the multi-dimensions of which it is made. It begins with the initial pulse generation of ST, generating from one dimension of space per one dimension of time, establishing the velocity of light, c, the conservation of which, further establishes the entire multi-dimensional ST continuum and all its encompassing Conservation Laws.
The LUFE model of the Universe, while incorporating most of the tenets of the “Standard Theory,” nevertheless stands on its own re-definition …a re-definition that gives primacy to ST. ST is the Universe …seen and not seen …visible and hidden. It is the ultimate conserved entity. All other Conservation Laws …while reflecting this ST …are, nevertheless, subservient to this one all-encompassing law …the Conservation of SpaceTime.
Conservation of ST …the most fundamental constant of all …expresses itself by conserving the multi-dimensions of which it is made. Figure 11.
First and foremost of these is c, the velocity of light. Conservation of the Velocity of Light, via the photon, is like the gatekeeper of the entire ST matrix …again, a matrix of multiple time and space dimensions that generate the dynamics of the Universe upon their interaction(s).
A big part of that interactional dynamic sheds light on one of the fundamental questions of our day. What is the nature of the hidden Dark Matter and Dark Energy? Indeed, are they two different manifestations of the same “unseen” force?
The entire LUFE model says “yes” to the latter and explains the former through the Conservation Laws …as a skewing of the ST matrix itself. And through the revelation of “Mass Variation in the Electron by Photon Absorption and The Inverse Square Law” a key mechanism of atomic, stellar, galactic and universal evolution has been described.
The mechanics of this process are so intimately tied back to the fundamental pulse-generating ST continuum …and the energy matter and fields of which it is composed …that the term “Fractal Universe” is emphatically not a misnomer.
The other Conservation Laws follow from the lead of the photon. The mass, charge, momentum (linear and angular [spin]), and energy of the matter and fields are simply played out expressions of this ST …forming the ST continuum (=ST matrix).
Communication …or call it realization and accountability …of this expression occurs through the exchange quanta …the vector bosons of the Higgs, photon, graviton, gluon and W+/0/Z0 particles. As force mediators, it only follows that the net effect of their actions of force must be in tune with the Conservation of ST. The Conservation of ST is mediated through the Conservation of Force, via the Higgs boson and its force mediating off spring, the exchange quanta.
This paper and all its contents © 2008, Reginald Brooks. All rights reserved. Permission is hereby granted for single copies to be made for personal, non-commercial use for students and teachers of schools, colleges and universities provided that: either the entire paper, including figures and tables, is kept intact; or, any extracts of the text, or figures or tables (in part or whole), be properly and visibly cited as to authorship and source.
NEXT Chapter on LUFE
The LUFE Matrix
Page 5a- Dark-Dark-Light: Dark Matter = Dark Energy
Page 5b- The History of the Universe in Scalar Graphics
Page 5c- The History of the Universe_update: The Big Void
Page 6a- Geometry- Layout
Page 6b- Geometry- Space Or Time Area (SOTA)
Page 6c- Geometry- Space-Time Interactional Dimensions(STID)
Page 6d- Distillation of SI units into ST dimensions
Page 6e- Distillation of SI quantities into ST dimensions
Page 7a- The LUFE Matrix Supplement: Introduction-Layout & Rules
Page 7b- The LUFE Matrix Supplement: Examples and Proofs
Page 7c- The LUFE Matrix Supplement: References
Page 8a- The LUFE Matrix: Infinite Dimensions
Page 9- The LUFE Matrix:E=mc2
Page 10a- Quantum Gravity ...by the book
Page 11- The Conservation of SpaceTime
Page 12a- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Preface, Table of Contents, and List of Figures
Page 12b- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter I: Symmetry of Design (Fields)
Page 12c- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter II: Introduction to the Geometry
~rhythms and melodies~
Page 12d- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter III: The Geometry of Elemental Forms
Page 12e- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter IV: The Geometry of Universal Constants
Page 12f- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter V: The Geometry of Intermediate Forms
Page 12g- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter VI: The Geometry of Change
~polyrhythms and polyphony
Page 12h- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter VII: The Geometry of Paradox
Page 12i- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Chapter VIII: The Geometry of Large Forms
Page 12j- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Page 12k- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
Page 12k- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~1. Mass: Mass Expression
Page 12l- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~2. Ratios:Ratios of the Electron to the Proton
Page 12m- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~3. Charge: Charge Expression
Page 12n- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~4. LUFE Matrix: Common Units and The LUFE Matrix
Page 12o- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Appendix II: Fundamental Constants
~5. The Atom: Mass Variation in the Electron by Photon Absorption and The Inverse Square Law
Page 12p- LUFE: The Layman’s Unified Field Expose-
Acknowledgements and Bibliography
Copyright©2008-09 Reginald Brooks, BROOKS DESIGN. All Rights Reserved.
The LUFE Matrix | The LUFE Matrix Supplement | The LUFE Matrix: Infinite Dimensions | The LUFE Matrix: E=mc2 | Dark Matter=Dark Energy | The History of the Universe in Scalar Graphics | The History of the Universe_update: The Big Void | Quantum Gravity ...by the book
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